The first photos taken from space were taken on 24 October 1946 by a camera mounted on German V-2 rocket that was launched from the White Sands Missile Range by the US military. This was one of the rockets transported from Germany to the US after the war.
The rocket raised on a suborbital flight path up to an altitude 105 kilometres. The camera aboard took photos every second and a half, and this photo from the highest point of the flight was five times higher than any picture taken before.
Read more about this achievement from this article in Smithsonian Magazine.